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Spin P- and T-violating effects

New optical phenomena caused by time-reversal-violating interactions of the electrons and nucleus are proposed and give us a new key for studying the time-reversal-violating interactions of the elementary particles.

During our research we have found out that time–reversal violating interactions of electrons and the nucleus cause numerous T–noninvariant optical phenomena that accompany the passage of particles and light through polarized matter. The study of such phenomena enables developing methods for measuring the constants characterizing T–noninvariant interactions thus providing information about the violation of fundamental symmetries. In particular, worthy of mention are the studies of the possibility of the EDM measurement for atoms and molecules in observation of light polarization plane rotation caused by pseudo-Zeeman splitting of atomic (molecular) levels by the external electric field due to the interaction of the atomic EDM with the electric field. Note that this effect is similar to Macaluso– Corbino magneto–optical effect Macaluso – Corbino [2, 3].

It should be stated that these experiments are based on the possibility of existence of such an intrinsic quantum characteristic of the atom (molecule) as a static EDM. According to [4-6] together with the EDM, there is one more characteristic of the atom (molecule) describing its response to the external field — the T– and P–odd polarizability. This polarizability differs from zero even if the electron EDM equals zero and the pseudo-Zeeman splitting of atomic (molecular) levels is absent.

The T–odd polarizability yields the appearance of new optical phenomena — photon polarization plane rotation and circular dichroism in an optically homogeneous isotropic medium exposed to an electric field caused by the Stark mixing of atomic (molecular) levels. This effect of the T–odd photon polarization plane rotation is caused by the magnetization of the atom by the external electric field. Moreover, according to [7], the magnetization of the atom appearing under the action of a static electric field causes the appearance of the induced magnetic field.

One more interesting T-odd phenomenon appears when the photon beam is incident orthogonally to the external electric field (or magnetic field or both electric and magnetic fields). This is birefringence effect (i.e. the effect when plane polarized photons are converted to circular polarized ones and vice versa). Also the T-odd phenomenon of photon polarization plane rotation and circular dichroism appears at photon passing through non-center-symmetrical diffraction grating.

INP scientists together with scientists from JINR (Dubna, Russia) succeeded to measure spin dichroism of relativistic deuterons with 5 GeV/s impulse moving through non-polarized target. Thus, existence of spin dichroism and spin rotation of relativistic deuterons of high energy moving through non-polarized medium was justified for the high energy range as it was theoretically predicted by INP scientists and firstly discovered in 2003 in collaboration with scientists of the Institute for Nuclear Physics (Julich, Germany) and the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Cologne University (Germany) at its accelerator.

Scientific leader — Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky


1. V.G. Baryshevsky. High-Energy Nuclear Optics of Polarized Particles. World Press. 2012. 640 p.
2. Macaluso D. and Corbino, O. M. (1898). Sopra una nuova azione che la luce subisce attraversando alcuni vapori metallici in un campo magnetico, Il Nuovo Cimento 8, 1, pp. 257–258.
3. Macaluso, D., Corbino, O. M. and Magri, L. (1899). Sulla relazione tra il fenomeno di Zeemann e la rotazione magnetica anomala del piano di polarizzazione della luce, Il Nuovo Cimento 9, 1, pp. 384–389.
4. Baryshevsky, V. G. (1993). Parity nonconservation under spin rotation of an atom (molecule) travelling in a laser wave, Phys. Lett. A, 1, 177 pp. 38–42.
5. Baryshevsky, V. G. and Baryshevsky, D. V. (1994). P– and T–violating spin rotation of an atom (molecule) passing through a laser wave, J. Phys. B 27, 19, pp. 4421–4431.
6. Baryshevsky, V. G. (1998). The phenomena of the time–violating photon polarization plane and neutron spin rotation by a diffraction grating. New methods of measuring of the time–violating interactions, J. High Energy Phys. 04 pp. 018.
7. Baryshevsky, V. G. (1999). Phenomenon of the time–reversal violating magnetic field generation by a static electric field in a medium and vacuum, LANL e-print arXiv:hep-ph/9912270 .
8. Baryshevsky, V. G. (1999). Time–reversal–violating optical gyrotropy, LANL e-print arXiv:hep-ph/9912438v3 .


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